# What are Project Management Knowledge Areas? To effectively plan and undertake all of the processes within a project, the PMBOK suggests that ten areas of knowledge are required. Each knowledge area represents an important element of project management and may incorporate some or all processes within the five project process groups | **1. Project Integration Management** | **1. Project Human Resource Management** | | --------------------------------- | ------------------------------------ | | **2. Project Scope Management** | **2. Project Communications Management** | | **3. Project Time Management** | **3. Project Risk Management** | | **4. Project Cost Management** | **4. Project Procurement Management** | | **5. Project Quality Management** | **5. Project Stakeholder Management** | Together with the project lifecycle phases, an integrative framework for managing projects can be established. ## The Core Project Elements The four project elements of time, cost, quality and scope are interdependent and are represented within the nine knowledge areas accordingly ![[Pasted image 20240624001525.png]] ## Other Project Elements The diagram below illustrates the relationship between all project elements ![[Pasted image 20240624001602.png]] # PM KNOWLEDGE AREAS ## 1. Integration Management Integration of a project deals with the procedures and processes required in planning and coordinating the various elements of a project and the integration of the management of a project into the structure of the organisation. ## 2. Scope Management The objective of the discipline of scope management is to ensure that the development of the work scope has been structured to: - achieve the aims of the charter - comply with all standard approvals - include consultative input from all stakeholders - comply with all necessary standards - identify all of the work required to complete the project successfully Scope management covers all stages of a project and is a vital discipline in correctly setting up a project to achieve its objectives. If the project scope is flawed then no matter how effective the management processes are the project will not achieve its objectives. Optimisation of the project scope at the outset is essential ## 3. Time Management Time management is achieved by the application of time control disciplines by the project manager. The most important of these is the prevailing attitude and drive of the project manager to achieve time objectives and the ability of that person to expedite and motivate all involved in the delivery of the project. Time management involves estimating, managing and predicting the relationship between the timelines and the activities on the project. This consists of: - setting up a realistic plan - carrying out that plan - monitoring progress against that plan - taking corrective action to rectify any delays against that plan ## 4. Cost Management Each project has an approved project budget which is the estimated cost of carrying out the specified scope of work for the time ahead. The project manager is to fully understand the background for the budget, all of its inclusions and exclusions and manage any significant changes to that budget. The PM will achieve the objectives of cost management using the following overall activities: - maintain an approved and accurate forward budget - predict the final cost of the project and compare against that which has been approved - track, approve and report expenditure against the budgets - manage expenditure and budgets through to project completion - manage external funding arrangements ## 5. Quality Management Quality management is the processes used to ensure that the project will satisfy the charter for which it was undertaken. It must ensure quality of outcome as well as process. It requires: - identifying standards applicable to the project and how to meet them - on an ongoing basis the performance of the project and its outputs are to be compared to the quality plan and project scope - the results of the comparison are used to rectify errors and prevent their re-occurrence ## 6. Human Resource Management This involves the selection and appointment of human resources to undertake the project. It is comprised of two key elements. - Planning - which covers planning, assigning and documenting peoples roles, responsibilities and reporting requirements. - Management - which includes obtaining and managing staff working on the project. this includes subcontractors and consultants. It details the processes related to the acquisition, training, retention, termination and costs of human resources required for the successful completion of the project ## 7. Communications Management Project communications management covers the link between all project team members and stakeholders. Communications covers liason with all project team members and involves the following activities: - development of a comprehensive communications plan - consultation with stakeholders on relevant issues and a plan for consulting, coordinating and advising them of progress - management of any public relations issues which may arise from a project including selling the positive aspects of the project - management of community consultation if required - reporting progress to clients - liaising internally throughout the project to ensure that conflicts with other project are avoided ## 8. Risk Management Risk management is inherent in virtually all activities undertaken by a project manager. The objective of risk management is to minimise uncertainty in the future of the project by accounting for all likely or possible eventualities in the planning of the project. Risk management is a structured management discipline carried out by the project manager who has the responsibility of identifying all significant risks and to include a management strategy for each within the project scope. A generic approach to analysing and managing risk in any project requires the following steps of: - identification - assessment - planning This process should be undertaken for all projects no matter how simple or straight- forward they may seem. ## 9. Procurement Management Procurement management involves the acquisition and management of all resources required for the delivery of the project. It can involve complex issues, requires strict application of procedures and involves major risks if managed incorrectly. The project manager should refer to a procurement expert within the organisation to provide interpretation of issues and setting of standards and to manage the dissemination of those standards throughout the organisation. Procurement management includes the following activities: - planning - preparation of technical briefs - contract management - tender negotiation - selection criteria - tender assessment - contract administration ## PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS VS PROCESSES | | | | | | | | ---------------------------------------- | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------------------- | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | **KNOWLEDGE AREAS** | **PLANNING** | | **MONITOR & CONTROL** | | **REVIEW / FINALISATION** | | INTEGRATION | | Project Plan | | Reports<br><br>Meetings, Minutes<br><br>Schedules<br><br>Budget | | | SCOPE<br><br>(what the project is about) | Scope Statements<br><br>- constraints<br><br>- exclusions, inclusions<br><br>- assumptions<br><br>- related projects | | Variation Management | | Finalisation Report<br><br>- scope<br><br>- time<br><br>- cost<br><br>- quality | | TIME | - WBS<br><br>- estimates<br><br>- schedule | | Schedule Updates | | - human resources<br><br>- communications<br><br>- risk<br><br>- procurement<br><br>- integration<br><br>Lessons learned | | COST | | Estimates<br><br>Budget<br><br>Cashflow | | Monitor budget<br><br>S curves planned / actual<br><br>Earned value | | | QUALITY | | Standards<br><br>SOP's, KPI's<br><br>Plans<br><br>Specifications | | Control charts<br><br>Audits | | | HUMAN RESOURCES | | RAM<br><br>Roles and responsibilities<br><br>Organisational structures<br><br>Training plan<br><br>Conflict management plan | | Training registers<br><br>Competency registers<br><br>Minutes<br><br>Performance reviews<br><br>Diary | | | COMMUNICATIONS | | Network diagram<br><br>Protocols<br><br>Communications matrix schedule<br><br>Filing document manager | | Reports | | | RISK | | Risk assessment matrix<br><br>Risk grid | | Risk Management Plan | | | PROCUREMENT | | "Shopping list"<br><br>(where to shop) | | Contract Management<br><br>Budget | | | | | | | | |