# **1.** **Start** Athletics is being part of human lifestyle for long term where its popularity begins in 776BC with the first Olympic Games including events as sprinting, endurance running, javelin and discus. Where events evolved in time and human abilities are remarkably getting better day by day as athletes are trained with modern techniques and equipment. ## **1.1.** **Finding Club** Every start needs involvement and local clubs are your best friend, where these sports clubs’ welcome athletes of all age groups with various activities. ## **1.2.** **The Track** Today’s tracks have two parallel ‘straights’ joined by semicircular bends of 400m measured at a distance of 30cm from the inside edge or kerb. These tracks are divided into six or ten individual lanes of each 1.22 to 1.25m wide which are numbered from inside to outside with lane one is closest to the inside. Sprint events are run in these lanes where 800m uses the lane as far as the end of the first bend; 4 x 400m relay uses them for one complete lap plus the first bend of the second lap. At racing events runners in outer lanes start further ahead in order to run the same distance as those running inner lanes, where races from 1,500m upward are not run in lanes so a curved start line is used. Finishing line is always at the end of the home straight marked by a line drawn at right angles to the inside edge of the track where the straight joins the bend. Considering field athletics, the area inside the centre of an athletics facility is used for such events as javelin, hammer, long jumps, etc. Where long jump and triple jump takes place off to the side of the track, often right infront of the spectators, that makes these a very exciting competition. # **2.** **Equipment** Sports equipments varies from sports where most are provided by stadium that includes photo-finish equipments, electronic timing displays, stand for judges and timekeepers, lap indicator board, bells, water jumps, steeplechase barriers, hurdles and starting blocks. **Hurdles** are height adjustable from 1.067m down to at least 0.762m with adjustable counterweights attached to base to take force of at least 3.6kg to overturn the hurdle. **Starting Block** are rigid and fastened to the track which allows to cause minimum damage to surface and there is no unfair advantage of this block, at some synthetic tracks users use their own blocks. **Clothing** design needs to be non-transparent at all weather conditions in order to be non-offensive, as usual wear is an athletic vest and shorts, and athletes representing clubs wear their club color and or logo when competing. **Shoes** are speacilised for different sports and unique to athletes, as for runners ridges, grooves or other identifications are allowed on their sole and heels provided they are same material the sole. Track running shoes can have spikes up to 11 and on synthetic surfaces these spikes may not exceed more than 9mm; on non-synthetic surfaces up to 25mm is allowed. The maximum diameter of each spike is set at 4mm. Cushion shoes are designed for long distance runners which comes with less grip compared to sprinters shoes that comes in light weight with more grip. And in same field athletes’ shoes are customised to different events like jumping, javelin, throw, etc. Competitors are required to wear identification numbers on their chest and or back as of identification and recording purpose. In running event photo-finish equipment athletes are asked to wear additional number stuck to side of their shorts as photo identification of a close finish. # 3. Warming up # 4. Cooling Down # 5. Sprints ## 5.1. 60 meters ## 5.2. 100 meters ## 5.3. 200 meters ## 5.4. 400 meters ## 5.5. Relay 4 x 100 meters ## 5.6. Relay 4 x 400 meters ## 5.7. Hurdles 100/110 meters ## 5.8. Hurdles 400 meters # 6. Distance Events ## 6.1. 800 meters ## 6.2. 1,500 meters ## 6.3. 5,000 meters ## 6.4. 10,000 meters ## 6.5. Marathon ## 6.6. Steepiechase # 7. Track Event ## 7.1. Training and Recovery ## 7.2. Training Energy Systems # 8. Jumping Events ## 8.1.   High Jump ## 8.2.   Long Jump ## 8.3.   Triple Jump ## 8.4.   Pole Jump # 9. Throwing Events ## 9.1.   Rules ## 9.2.   Shot Put ## 9.3.   Hammer ## 9.4.   Discus ## 9.5.   Javelin # 10.   Combined Event # 11. Field Training ## 11.1. Speed ## 11.2. Strength # 12. Field Event Common Faults ## 12.1. Throwing events ## 12.2. Jumping Events