Monitoring and Controlling Project Work: A Beautiful Process
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Monitoring and Controlling Project Work: A Beautiful Process

The Earned Value Technique is a valuable tool for project managers. It can be used to track the project's progress, identify any potential problems early on, and make necessary adjustments to the project plan.

Monitoring and controlling project work is a critical process in ensuring that projects stay on track and meet their objectives. It involves collecting, measuring, and analyzing project performance data to identify any deviations from the plan. Once deviations are identified, the project manager can take corrective or preventive action to keep the project on track.

The inputs to the Monitor and Control Project Work process include:

  • Project Management Plan: This document outlines the project's goals, objectives, scope, schedule, budget, and other key elements.
  • Schedule forecasts: These forecasts provide estimates of the project's remaining schedule.
  • Cost forecasts: These forecasts provide estimates of the project's remaining costs.
  • Validated changes: These are changes that have been approved and incorporated into the project plan.
  • Work performance information: This information includes data on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Enterprise environmental factors: These are factors that are external to the project, such as the political climate, economic conditions, and the availability of resources.
  • Organizational process assets: These are assets that the organization has developed over time, such as project templates and checklists.

The tools and techniques used in the Monitor and Control Project Work process include:

  • Expert judgement: This involves using the knowledge and experience of experts to assess project performance.
  • Analytical techniques: These techniques are used to analyze project data and identify trends.
  • Project management information systems: These systems are used to collect, store, and manage project data.

The outputs of the Monitor and Control Project Work process include:

  • Change requests: These requests are made when there is a need to change the project plan.
  • Work performance reports: These reports provide information on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Project management plan updates: These updates are made to the project plan to reflect changes that have been made to the project.
  • Project documents updates: These updates are made to other project documents, such as the risk register and issue log.

The key benefit of Monitor & Control Project Work is that it allows for timely detection of potential problems, so that corrective action can be taken before they impact project success. This process also provides stakeholders with regular updates on project status, ensuring transparency and accountability. Ultimately, effective monitoring and control allows for successful project delivery within established scope, schedule, and cost parameters.

The four core elements of a project are scope, schedule, budget, and quality. Each of these elements requires strong monitoring and controlling techniques to ensure that they do not deviate from the parameters set out in the Project Management Plan (PMP).

The techniques that can be used for each of the four core elements:

Scope Control: This process involves monitoring and controlling the project scope to ensure that it remains within the defined boundaries. This includes managing changes to the scope, ensuring that deliverables are completed on time and within budget, and ensuring that requirements are met. Scope control techniques may include regular scope reviews, stakeholder engagement, and change management processes.

Schedule Control: This process involves monitoring and controlling the project schedule to ensure that it remains on track. This includes managing changes to the schedule, ensuring that tasks are completed on time and within budget, and identifying and mitigating schedule risks. Schedule control techniques may include regular schedule reviews, project management software, and risk management processes.

Cost Control: This process involves monitoring and controlling the project budget to ensure that it remains within the allocated funds. This includes managing changes to the budget, ensuring that costs are kept under control, and identifying and mitigating cost risks. Cost control techniques may include regular cost reviews, cost forecasting, and cost-benefit analyses.

Quality Control: This process involves monitoring and controlling the quality of the project deliverables to ensure that they meet the expected standards. This includes managing changes to quality requirements, ensuring that quality is maintained throughout the project, and identifying and mitigating quality risks. Quality control techniques may include regular quality reviews, quality assurance processes, and testing and verification activities.

For effective monitoring and controlling:

  • Set clear expectations and communicate them to all stakeholders.
  • Establish regular review cycles and track progress against the plan.
  • Identify and manage risks early on.
  • Be proactive and take corrective action as needed.
  • Be flexible and adaptable to changes.

Overall, effective monitoring and control of these core elements can help ensure the success of a project by identifying potential issues early on and making necessary adjustments in a timely manner.

Monitor & Controlling Processes

Control Scope

Control scope is the process of monitoring the project scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. The goal of scope control is to ensure that the project delivers the agreed-upon scope, without any unplanned changes.

The key benefit of Control Scope is that it provides greater control over the project scope, ensuring that changes are managed effectively and that deliverables are aligned with project requirements. This process also allows for better management of project schedule and cost, as changes to the project scope can have a significant impact on these elements.

Variance analysis is a key tool in Control Scope, as it allows for the identification of variances in project performance, particularly in relation to project scope. This enables corrective action to be taken in a timely manner, reducing the impact of scope changes on project success.

The inputs to the Control Scope process include:

  • Project Management Plan: This document outlines the project's goals, objectives, scope, schedule, budget, and other key elements.
  • Requirements documentation: This document describes the project's requirements in detail.
  • Requirements traceability matrix: This matrix shows how the requirements map to the project's deliverables.
  • Work performance data: This data provides information on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Organizational process assets: These assets are assets that the organization has developed over time, such as project templates and checklists.

The tools and techniques used in the Control Scope process include:

  • Variance analysis: This technique is used to compare the project's actual performance to the planned performance.
  • Change control process: This process is used to manage changes to the project scope.
  • Communication: This is the process of keeping stakeholders informed of the project's progress and any changes to the scope.

The outputs of the Control Scope process include:

  • Work performance information: This information provides updates on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Change requests: These requests are made when there is a need to change the project scope.
  • Project Management Plan updates: These updates are made to the project plan to reflect changes that have been made to the scope.
  • Project documents updates: These updates are made to other project documents, such as the requirements documentation and the requirements traceability matrix.
  • Organizational process assets updates: These updates are made to the organization's assets, such as project templates and checklists.

The Control Scope process is an ongoing process that is performed throughout the project lifecycle. It is important to monitor the project scope regularly to identify any potential problems early on so that corrective action can be taken. By controlling the project scope effectively, project managers can help ensure that projects deliver the agreed-upon scope without any unplanned changes.

For effective scope control:

  • Get clear and detailed requirements from the stakeholders.
  • Use a work breakdown structure (WBS) to define the project scope.
  • Conduct regular scope reviews to identify any potential changes.
  • Have a change control process in place to manage changes to the scope.
  • Communicate changes to the stakeholders early and often.

By maintaining a focus on ensuring that project deliverables meet requirements, Control Scope helps to ensure that project objectives are achieved within the established parameters of scope, schedule, and cost. Updating project documents and organisational process assets throughout the process also helps to ensure that lessons learned from the project are captured and can be applied to future projects.

Scope Creep

Scope creep is the uncontrolled expansion of a project's scope, which can lead to increased costs, delays, and ultimately, project failure. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Unclear or incomplete requirements
  • Lack of communication between stakeholders
  • Changes in the project environment
  • Unrealistic expectations

Scope creep can be prevented by establishing specific procedures for changing scope, as you mentioned. These procedures should include:

  • Defining who will be able to submit potential changes
  • Defining who will be able to approve changes
  • Defining which elements cannot be changed
  • Scope change notification
  • Setting clear project objectives, requirements, and deliverables at the outset of the project.
  • Regularly reviewing and assessing the project scope to ensure that it remains aligned with project goals and objectives.
  • Developing a change management plan that outlines the process for controlling scope changes and identifying potential risks associated with those changes.
  • Ensuring that any proposed changes are evaluated for their potential impact on project schedule, cost, and quality, and that the appropriate approvals are obtained before changes are made.
  • Maintaining open communication channels with project stakeholders throughout the project to identify and address any issues or concerns related to project scope.

The procedures should also be communicated to all stakeholders so that everyone is aware of the process and the consequences of making changes to the scope.

In addition to establishing procedures for changing scope, there are other things that can be done to prevent scope creep, such as:

  • Getting clear and detailed requirements from the stakeholders
  • Using a work breakdown structure (WBS) to define the project scope
  • Conducting regular scope reviews
  • Having a change control process in place to manage changes to the scope
  • Communicating changes to the stakeholders early and often

Project managers can ensure that scope creep is prevented and that projects are completed on time, within budget, and to the desired quality standards as:

  • Get buy-in from all stakeholders on the project scope early on.
  • Be clear about the project's goals and objectives.
  • Break the project down into smaller, more manageable tasks.
  • Set realistic deadlines and budgets.
  • Communicate regularly with stakeholders about the project's progress.
  • Be willing to say no to requests for changes.

By taking a proactive approach to managing project scope, and establishing clear processes and procedures for handling scope changes, project managers can help to minimize the risk of Scope Creep and ensure that their projects stay on track and within budget.

Risks Associated with Scope Changes

Unmanaged scope changes can have a significant impact on a project and can put the project objectives at risk. Which can lead to delays and additional costs. The risks associated with unmanaged scope changes include:

  • Rework: When the scope of a project changes, it may be necessary to rework some of the work that has already been done. This can be costly and time-consuming.
  • Schedule delays: Scope changes can also lead to schedule delays. This is because the project team may need to re-plan the project to accommodate the changes.
  • Increased costs: Scope changes can also lead to increased costs. This is because the project team may need to purchase additional resources or services to accommodate the changes.
  • Decreased quality: Scope changes can also lead to decreased quality. This is because the project team may not have enough time or resources to properly implement the changes.
  • Dissatisfied stakeholders: Scope changes can also lead to dissatisfied stakeholders. This is because the stakeholders may not be happy with the changes to the project.

To mitigate the risks associated with unmanaged scope changes, it is important to have a well-defined change control process in place. The change control process should define how scope changes will be managed, and who has the authority to approve changes. The change control process should also be communicated to all stakeholders so that everyone is aware of the process and the consequences of making changes to the scope.

In addition to having a change control process in place, it is also important to get clear and detailed requirements from the stakeholders early on in the project. This will help to avoid scope changes later in the project. It is also important to communicate regularly with stakeholders throughout the project so that they are aware of the project's progress and any potential changes to the scope.

Other risks associated with scope changes include:

  • Reduced quality of project deliverables due to rushed implementation of changes or insufficient resources to complete the work.
  • Increased risk of project failure due to changes that distract from the core objectives or that lead to a lack of focus on critical project elements.
  • Stakeholder dissatisfaction resulting from changes that were not communicated or properly managed, and that do not align with stakeholders' expectations or needs.
  • Reduced team morale and motivation due to constantly changing project scope and objectives, and the associated challenges of adjusting work plans and resourcing.
  • Increased complexity due to additional processes and activities required to manage scope changes, leading to project management overheads.

For managing scope changes:

  • Get buy-in from all stakeholders on the project scope early on.
  • Be clear about the project's goals and objectives.
  • Break the project down into smaller, more manageable tasks.
  • Set realistic deadlines and budgets.
  • Communicate regularly with stakeholders about the project's progress.
  • Be willing to say no to requests for changes.

To minimize these risks, it is important to manage changes to project scope carefully and to ensure that clear processes and procedures are in place for evaluating and approving any proposed changes. This enables project managers to make informed decisions about scope changes, and to communicate any changes effectively to team members and stakeholders, minimizing the risk of negative impacts on project success.

Control Schedule

Schedule control is a critical aspect of project management that involves regular monitoring and control activities to ensure that the project remains on track and within schedule. To effectively control the project schedule, project managers use a range of inputs, tools, and techniques to evaluate project progress, identify potential issues, and make adjustments as necessary.

The inputs to the Schedule Control process include:

  • Project Management Plan: This document outlines the project's goals, objectives, scope, schedule, budget, and other key elements.
  • Project Schedule: This document shows the project's activities, their dependencies, and their estimated start and end dates.
  • Work performance data: This data provides information on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Project calendars: These calendars show the working hours and holidays for the project.
  • Schedule data: This data provides information on the project's schedule, such as the critical path and the slack time for each activity.
  • Organizational process assets: These assets are assets that the organization has developed over time, such as project templates and checklists.

The tools and techniques used in the Schedule Control process include:

  • Performance reviews: This technique is used to compare the project's actual performance to the planned performance.
  • Project management software: This software can be used to track the project's schedule and identify any potential problems.
  • Resource optimization techniques: These techniques are used to optimize the use of resources, such as people and equipment.
  • Modelling techniques: These techniques are used to create models of the project schedule to help identify potential problems.
  • Leads and lags: These are terms used to describe the amount of time between the start of one activity and the start of another activity.
  • Schedule compression: This is a technique used to shorten the project schedule by overlapping activities.
  • Scheduling tool: This is a tool that can be used to create and manage project schedules.

The outputs of the Schedule Control process include:

  • Work performance information: This information provides updates on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Schedule forecasts: These forecasts provide estimates of the project's remaining schedule.
  • Change requests: These requests are made when there is a need to change the project schedule.
  • Project Management Plan updates: These updates are made to the project plan to reflect changes that have been made to the schedule.
  • Project documents updates: These updates are made to other project documents, such as the work performance reports and the risk register.
  • Organizational process assets updates: These updates are made to the organization's assets, such as project templates and checklists.

The Schedule Control process is an ongoing process that is performed throughout the project lifecycle. It is important to monitor the project schedule regularly to identify any potential problems early on so that corrective action can be taken. By controlling the project schedule effectively, project managers can help ensure that projects are completed on time and within budget.

For effective schedule control:

  • Create a realistic project schedule.
  • Get buy-in from all stakeholders on the schedule.
  • Track the project schedule regularly.
  • Identify and manage any potential problems early on.
  • Be flexible and adaptable to changes.

Schedule control is an essential part of project management that helps ensure that the project is on track and within the planned timeline. By using the right inputs, tools, and techniques, project managers can monitor progress, make informed decisions, and initiate corrective actions to keep the project schedule aligned with the management plan. The outputs of this process play a critical role in keeping stakeholders informed about project progress and any changes required to achieve project objectives. By implementing effective schedule control practices, project managers can streamline the project timeline, reduce costs, and deliver better outcomes for the organization.

Progress Reporting

Progress reporting is the process of communicating the status of a project to its stakeholders. It is an important part of project management, as it helps to ensure that the project is on track and that any potential problems are identified early on.

This tool is critical in ensuring that stakeholders are kept informed about the status of the project. Which involves using the project schedule as a comparison tool to assess current progress against the planned timeline. By identifying any variances, project managers can take corrective action to ensure that the project remains on track.

The progress report should be presented in a consistent format throughout the project, making it easier for stakeholders to follow progress over time. Charts and graphs can be used to provide a visual representation of progress, including the schedule baseline, current position, and forecast completion dates for milestones and completion.

The progress report should include the following information:

  • The project's overall status
  • The status of each major deliverable
  • Any changes to the project plan
  • Any risks or issues that have been identified
  • The next steps for the project

The progress report should be presented in a clear and concise manner. It should be easy for stakeholders to understand the information that is being presented.

The project communication plan should specify how often progress reports will be presented and to whom they will be presented. This ensures that stakeholders are kept informed at appropriate intervals and that the project team has sufficient time to gather and analyze data before reporting.

The frequency of progress reporting will vary depending on the size and complexity of the project. However, it is generally recommended to report progress on a regular basis, such as weekly or monthly. This will help to ensure that stakeholders are kept informed of the project's progress and that any potential problems are identified early on.

By regularly reporting on the progress of the project, project managers can help to ensure that the project is on track and that any potential problems are identified early on. This can help to prevent delays and cost overruns, and can ultimately lead to the successful completion of the project.

For effective progress reporting:

  • Keep the report concise and to the point.
  • Use clear and easy-to-understand language.
  • Highlight any areas of concern or risk.
  • Include a summary of the next steps for the project.
  • Present the report in a consistent format.
  • Tailor the report to the specific needs of the stakeholders.

Effective progress reporting allows project managers to monitor project performance, identify areas of concern and take corrective action when necessary. It also helps to maintain stakeholder engagement, build trust, and ensure that everyone is working towards a common goal. By ensuring that progress reports are produced in a consistent and timely manner, project managers can keep stakeholders informed throughout the project lifecycle and ensure successful project delivery.

Control Costs

Cost control is an essential process that helps project managers minimize cost overruns and ensure that the project remains within budget. The cost control process involves monitoring and recording positive and negative variances within the project budget, forecasting future costs, and taking preventative or corrective actions when necessary.

The inputs to the Cost Control process include:

  • Project Management Plan: This document outlines the project's goals, objectives, scope, schedule, budget, and other key elements.
  • Project funding requirements: This document specifies the amount of money that is available to the project.
  • Work performance data: This data provides information on the project's actual costs, such as labor, materials, and travel expenses.
  • Organizational process assets: These assets are assets that the organization has developed over time, such as project templates and checklists.

The tools and techniques used in the Cost Control process include:

  • Earned value management (EVM): This is a technique used to track the project's progress and costs.
  • Forecasting: This is the process of predicting the project's future costs.
  • To-complete performance index (TCPI): This is an index that measures the project's progress towards completion and its ability to stay within budget.
  • Performance reviews: This is the process of comparing the project's actual performance to the planned performance.
  • Project management software: This software can be used to track the project's costs and identify any potential problems.
  • Reserve analysis: This is the process of analyzing the project's reserves to determine if they are sufficient to cover any potential cost overruns.

The outputs of the Cost Control process include:

  • Work performance information: This information provides updates on the project's actual costs.
  • Cost forecasts: These forecasts provide estimates of the project's future costs.
  • Change requests: These requests are made when there is a need to change the project budget.
  • Project Management Plan updates: These updates are made to the project plan to reflect changes that have been made to the budget.
  • Project documents updates: These updates are made to other project documents, such as the work performance reports and the risk register.
  • Organizational process assets updates: These updates are made to the organization's assets, such as project templates and checklists.

To ensure effective cost control, project managers must have accurate and up-to-date inputs, such as the project management plan, project funding requirements, work performance data, and organizational process assets. They can then use a range of tools and techniques, including earned value management, forecasting, to-complete performance index, performance reviews, project management software, and reserve analysis, to analyze data and identify cost variances.

For effective cost control:

  • Create a realistic budget.
  • Get buy-in from all stakeholders on the budget.
  • Track the project costs regularly.
  • Identify and manage any potential problems early on.
  • Be flexible and adaptable to changes.

By implementing effective cost control practices, project managers can increase the chances of project success by keeping the project within budget, identifying potential cost overruns early, and taking corrective actions before they become major issues. This ensures that the project is delivered on time, within budget, and meets the expectations of all stakeholders.

Earned Value Technique

The Earned Value Technique (EVT) is a method of performance measurement and analysis that compares the value of completed project work with the actual and scheduled costs. The purpose of this technique is to determine any variances that may impact the project budget.

To implement the Earned Value Technique, certain variables must be assigned values at defined time intervals throughout the project. The key variables used in this technique include:

Planned Value (PV): The estimated value of the project work scheduled to be completed at a given time.

Earned Value (EV): The estimated value of the project work that has actually been completed at a given time.

Actual Cost (AC): The actual costs incurred in completing the project work at a given time.

Estimate to Complete (ETC): The estimated costs required to complete the remaining project work.

Estimate at Completion (EAC): The total estimated cost of the project, including expenditures that are yet to be incurred.

Using these variables, the following calculations can be performed:

Cost Variance (CV): The difference between the actual cost of the project work completed and the planned cost of the work scheduled. CV = EV - AC.

Schedule Variance (SV): The difference between the actual amount of project work completed and the planned amount of work, expressed in monetary terms. SV = EV - PV.

Benefits of using EVM:

  • It provides a way to measure the project's progress and performance against the plan.
  • It can help identify potential problems early on, so that corrective action can be taken.
  • It can help forecast the project's future performance.
  • It can help improve communication and collaboration between stakeholders.

By calculating CV and SV, project managers can determine the scale of any variances from the project budget and identify deviations from the project schedule. These variances can then be used to forecast the project's future status and help in taking corrective measures to avoid undesirable outcomes.

Ultimately, the Earned Value Technique provides project managers with a comprehensive understanding of how the project progresses and the scale of its financial and scheduling variances. By using this technique, project managers can make informed decisions that ensure the project stays within budget, aligns with schedule requirements, and meets the expectations of all stakeholders.

Perform Integrated Change Control

Performing Integrated Change Control involves managing changes to the project from inception to completion while recognizing the interdependence between the four core project elements. The process involves evaluating any requested changes, managing approved changes in a predefined Change Control System, documenting their impact, and identifying and implementing corrective and preventive actions for any unfavourable changes.

The inputs to the Perform Integrated Change Control process include:

  • Project Management Plan: This document outlines the project's goals, objectives, scope, schedule, budget, and other key elements.
  • Work performance reports: These reports provide information on the project's actual progress, costs, and other metrics.
  • Change requests: These requests are made when there is a need to change the project plan.
  • Enterprise environmental factors: These factors are external to the project, such as the political climate, economic conditions, and the availability of resources.
  • Organizational process assets: These assets are assets that the organization has developed over time, such as project templates and checklists.

The tools and techniques used in the Perform Integrated Change Control process include:

  • Expert judgement: This involves using the knowledge and experience of experts to assess the impact of changes.
  • Meetings: This is a forum for stakeholders to discuss and agree on changes to the project plan.
  • Change control tools: These tools can be used to track and manage changes to the project plan.

The outputs of the Perform Integrated Change Control process include:

  • Approved change requests: These requests are approved by the project's change control board and are incorporated into the project plan.
  • Change log: This log tracks all changes that have been made to the project plan.
  • Project Management Plan updates: These updates are made to the project plan to reflect changes that have been approved.
  • Project documents updates: These updates are made to other project documents, such as the work performance reports and the risk register.

Integrated Change Control activities include identifying changes that need to occur or have occurred, minimizing unapproved changes within the project, managing approved changes through a predefined Change Control System, documenting the impact of all changes, and identifying and implementing corrective and preventive actions in response to undesirable changes.

The Perform Integrated Change Control process is an important process that helps to ensure that changes to the project are managed effectively. By following this process, project managers can help to ensure that projects are completed on time, within budget, and to the desired quality standards.

Here are some tips for effective change control:

  • Have a clear and concise change control process in place.
  • Communicate the change control process to all stakeholders.
  • Use a change control log to track all changes to the project plan.
  • Require all changes to be approved by the project's change control board.
  • Communicate changes to all stakeholders in a timely manner.
  • Monitor the impact of changes and make adjustments as needed.

One of the key challenges of Integrated Change Control is managing scope creep, which occurs when there are unapproved changes to the project scope. Effective change control processes can help minimize scope creep by ensuring that all changes are documented, assessed for their impact on the project, and approved using a predefined Change Control System. By carefully managing changes, project managers can ensure that the project remains aligned with its goals, stays within budget and schedule, and meets the expectations of all stakeholders.

Systems for Change

A change control system is a formal process for managing changes to a project. It ensures that all changes are reviewed and approved before they are implemented. This helps to ensure that changes do not negatively impact the project's goals, objectives, or schedule.

The change control system should include the following steps:

  1. Identify the need for change. This can be done by the project manager, a stakeholder, or anyone else who is involved in the project.
  2. Evaluate the impact of the change. This involves assessing how the change will affect the project's goals, objectives, schedule, budget, and other elements.
  3. Develop a change proposal. This document should describe the change in detail and its impact on the project.
  4. Obtain approval for the change. This approval should be granted by the project's change control board or another authorized body.
  5. Implement the change. This involves making the necessary changes to the project plan, documentation, and other materials.
  6. Track the change. This involves monitoring the impact of the change and making adjustments as needed.

The change control system should be documented and communicated to all stakeholders. This will help to ensure that everyone understands the process and that changes are implemented in a timely and efficient manner.

For creating an effective change control system:

  • Keep the process simple and easy to understand.
  • Define the roles and responsibilities of all involved parties.
  • Use a standard format for change proposals.
  • Establish clear criteria for approving changes.
  • Communicate the change control system to all stakeholders.
  • Track the effectiveness of the change control system and make improvements as needed.

In order to effectively manage changes, project teams should establish a change control system that defines the process for requesting, reviewing, approving, and implementing changes. This change control system should be clearly documented in the Project Management Plan and communicated to all stakeholders.

The change control system should define the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, such as the project manager, change control board, and team members, in managing changes. It should also outline the criteria for evaluating changes, such as the impact on the project scope, schedule, budget, quality, and risks.

Change requests should be submitted in writing and include a description of the change, the reason for the change, the expected impact on the project, an evaluation of alternative options, and a proposed implementation plan. These change requests should be reviewed by the change control board and approved or rejected based on the established criteria and the impact on the project.

Approved changes should be incorporated into the Project Management Plan, including updates to the project scope, schedule, budget, and risks. The project team should also implement the change, monitor its effectiveness, and communicate the change to all stakeholders.

By establishing an effective change control system, project teams can ensure that changes to the project are properly evaluated and approved, reducing the risk of scope creep, budget overruns, and schedule delays. This enables project teams to effectively manage changes and deliver successful projects that meet the expectations of stakeholders.

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